Works in Progress

Mindes, S. C. H., P. A. Lewin, & M. Fisher. “Intergenerational and ethnonational disparities in Hispanic immigrant self-employment.” (under review)

Summary: Hispanics are important contributors to the self-employment sector. Their entrepreneurial activity varies by immigration status and ethnonational subgroup. We comparatively examine the self-employment of Hispanics who immigrated as adults, those who immigrated as children, and non-immigrants across five groups in the United States: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Southern South Americans, and “other Hispanics.” We investigate intergenerational assimilation through self-employment into the three trajectories posited by segmented assimilation theory. We estimate regression models using a sample from the American Community Survey of Hispanics (n = 585,279) and U.S.-born non-Hispanic Whites (n = 2,848,456). In a subsequent exploratory analysis, we estimate models for Hispanic origin and immigrant status groups to compare key predictors. We find that self-employment probabilities indicate distinct assimilation patterns for our origin groups. The exploratory analysis reveals different effects of important characteristics across groups. This work highlights the need for policies tailored toward the heterogeneity in Hispanics’ assimilation processes. 

Mindes, S. C. H. & P. A. Lewin. “Family matters? How marriage and motherhood affect Hispanic women’s employment decisions.” (under review)

Summary: According to the American Community Survey, Hispanic women’s self-employment rose by 125% from 2001 to 2018 compared to just 11% for non-Hispanic women. However, this growth diverges across marital statuses. The increase in self-employed unmarried Hispanic women roughly doubled the growth of their married counterparts. For Hispanic women, one’s marital status and motherhood to young children have a meaningful influence on entering the self-employment sector. We investigate this group’s employment decisions using pooled data from the 2016-2018 American Community Survey. We use a theoretical framework that emphasizes the influence of a culture of familism and traditional gender roles for women in the family, which may discourage married Hispanic women and Hispanic mothers from starting a business, especially when their spouse is also Hispanic. Our statistical analysis, which utilizes several multinomial logit models with interaction effects, suggests that the influence of family dynamics—namely, marriage and young children in the home—on employment choice is different for Hispanic and non-Hispanic women.

Mindes, S. C. H. & P. A. Lewin. “The intersectional dimensions of Hispanic immigrant women’s entrepreneurship propensities.” (under review)

Summary: Many factors influence the economic opportunities for Hispanic women. In particular, their gender and ethnicity shape employment paths, as does their immigration status. Hispanic entrepreneurship is seeing rapid growth, but the heterogeneity of that group remains understudied. Using 2014-2018 American Community Survey data, we investigate formal and informal self-employment across three key factors—namely gender, Hispanic ethnicity, and immigration status—guided by an intersectional theoretical framework and quantitative data analysis. We find that overlaying categories of discrimination has a greater effect than each category alone, highlighting the need for policies tailored to help those who face multiple barriers to economic prosperity.

Mindes, S. C. H. & P. A. Lewin. “Self-employed families through the COVID-19 pandemic: An analysis of recent CPS data.”

Summary: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was not felt equally across the nation. This research aims to improve economic recovery from the pandemic, specifically in marginalized communities. This article enhances our understanding of the unequal impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on minority self-employed families and support rural communities. Findings contribute to the larger US economic recovery initiatives and facilitate policymaking that promotes resilience in the face of future financial and health crises. Using recent Current Population Survey data, the research evaluates the hardships faced by rural, minority, and immigrant self-employed families through the pandemic and investigate their recovery in a post-pandemic world.

Mindes, S. C. H. & P. A. Lewin. “The Rise of Hispanic Women’s Self-Employment.”

Summary: Hispanic women’s self-employment is fast-growing. They are increasingly important contributors to the U.S. economy. However, self-employed Hispanic women are diverse in terms of ancestry, immigration status, employment industry, and the challenges they face. This article explores these trends and motivation in self-employment among Hispanic women to inform policies and programs.

Mindes, S. C. H. & B. P. Mullan. “Emigration from the United States: Conceptualizing and evaluating an ‘American Diaspora.’”

Summary: In the absence of consensus on a theoretical understanding of the forces underlying increased emigration from the United States, scholars have recently described American emigrants as constituting a diaspora. Following a systematic exploration and explanation of the various definitions and interpretations of ‘diaspora’ as a collective term, we assess the legitimacy of an ‘American Diaspora.’ We comparatively consider diasporas across time and context. We compare and contrast established diaspora characteristics with those of current American emigration. We conclude that American emigration does not represent a diaspora and propose an alternative collective term to conceptually categorize the shared motivations and experience of American emigrants. We discuss the implications of casting American emigration as a diaspora and the potential de-legitimization of the term stemming from its expanding use.

Mindes, S. C. H. & B. Mullan. “Envisaging expatriation: Media framing of emigration from the United States.” (In preparation)

Summary: This article investigates representations of American emigration in the media, focusing on newspaper and magazine articles published in the United States since the early 1990s. This chapter uses qualitative content analysis of media framing in mass media coverage of emigration from the United States. Primarily, this article is driven by the question: How has the national media covered (portrayed or framed) emigrants from the United States to Canada and Mexico? To address this question in more depth I also ask: What are the themes, topics, and frames used in the media representation of American emigration? In what ways is emigration to each location framed differently? More specifically, how are the motivations for emigration represented in the media? To answer these questions, I bring together literatures on migration systems theory, media framing, and the migration imaginary.