Works in Progress

Mindes, S. C. H, & P.A. Lewin. “Roots of Entrepreneurship: Hispanic Self-Employment across Immigrant Generations.” (Under review)

Summary: Hispanics are major contributors to the self-employment sector in the U.S. They consistently have the highest rate of new entrepreneurship. Furthermore, Hispanics are the largest immigrant group. For immigrants in the U.S., entrepreneurship is an essential opportunity for entering the formal economy, as their temporary status affects their ability to secure jobs in other sectors. At present, scholarship on Hispanic entrepreneurship is limited. Researchers have not fully explained entrepreneurial differences between the first-generation of immigrants and their decedents, which have been found to be different in other important ways. The goal of this research is to improve the well-being of Hispanics in rural communities by expanding our understanding of the challenges and opportunities faced in entrepreneurship across immigrant generations and Hispanic-origin groups. This research seeks to expand our knowledge of immigrant incorporation and assimilation.

Mindes, S. C. H. & P. A. Lewin. “A multiplicity of barriers: The self-employment and business incorporation of immigrant Hispanic women in the United States.” (Under review)

Summary: A range of factors influences the economic opportunities for Hispanic women. These barriers include family construction, such as marital status, children at home, and living arrangements. Economic opportunities also hinge on educational and employment history, the status of the local economy, the composition of the local community, and a range of other individual characteristics. Indeed, these critical barriers overlap and interact with cultural expectations. Chiefly to this is immigration status, which is a crucial backdrop to these barriers due to cultural tensions and family expectations. These barriers are particularly central to shaping involvement in the self-employment sector, which is more contingent on these dynamics than wage-work. Furthermore, self-employed business incorporation also hinges on these and other factors. We investigate how personal, familial, and social factors influence self-employment propensity and business incorporation for Hispanic women at the intersection of Hispanic group membership and immigrant status. While incorporation offers essential benefits, such as protection of assets, credibility, access to capital, and tax advantages, it also requires more capital and thus has additional obstacles. For Hispanic women, barriers to economic success are numerous. Self-employment can be both an opportunity to find success or a last-ditch effort to have some source of income. Through statistical modeling of American Community Survey data, we explain the impact of individual and social characteristics on the self-employment of Hispanic women in the United States. Our results find that one’s immigrant generation and Hispanic group are central to shaping the impact of individual, family, and social characteristics.

Mindes, S. C. H. & B. Mullan.“Emigration from the United States: Conceptualizing and evaluating an ‘American Diaspora.” (Under review)

Summary: In the absence of consensus on a theoretical understanding of the forces underlying increased emigration from the United States, scholars have recently described American emigrants as constituting a diaspora. Following a systematic exploration and explanation of the various definitions and interpretations of ‘diaspora’ as a collective term, we assess the legitimacy of an ‘American Diaspora.’ We comparatively consider diasporas across time and context. We compare and contrast established diaspora characteristics with those of current American emigration. We conclude that American emigration does not represent a diaspora and propose an alternative collective term to conceptually categorize the shared motivations and experience of American emigrants. We discuss the implications of casting American emigration as a diaspora and the potential de-legitimization of the term stemming from its expanding use.

Mindes, S. C. H. & B. Mullan. “Envisaging expatriation: Media framing of emigration from the United States.” (In preparation)

Summary: This article investigates representations of American emigration in the media, focusing on newspaper and magazine articles published in the United States since the early 1990s. This chapter uses qualitative content analysis of media framing in mass media coverage of emigration from the United States. Primarily, this article is driven by the question: How has the national media covered (portrayed or framed) emigrants from the United States to Canada and Mexico? To address this question in more depth I also ask: What are the themes, topics, and frames used in the media representation of American emigration? In what ways is emigration to each location framed differently? More specifically, how are the motivations for emigration represented in the media? To answer these questions, I bring together literatures on migration systems theory, media framing, and the migration imaginary.