Chapter 4

Demographic Profiles and Changes of Americans in Canada and Mexico

Chapter Abstract

This chapter builds and evaluates a demographic profile of American emigration, focusing on changes and trends in the populations in Canada and Mexico, while also considering shifts in net migration of the United States. This chapter uses secondary data sources, primarily census data from Canada’s 1991, 2001, and 2011 censuses and Mexico’s 1990, 2000, and 2010 censuses. Additionally, this analysis uses data from major data collection agencies, specifically the World Bank and the United Nations. These sources are well-established and offer statistics on American emigration to varying accuracy, thus they have more validity when considered together. Data presented here describe the size and demographics of the American populations in Canada and Mexico. In addition to migration stocks, I present data on trends in age, education, and, for younger people, location of birth of parent. This chapter assesses trends and patterns in American emigration in North America and establishes a basis against which to contrast the representation of American emigration in the media, which is the focus of Chapter 5. Furthermore, emigration trends and patterns are evaluated in terms of migration transition theory’s emphasis on development and social transformation.